Even though rhotics are very common sounds in the languages of the world, there is a consensus in the literature that they are articulatorily complex. We deal first with lenition in general, then lenition as attested in specific varieties of English, and with lenition as a casual speech process. Gurevich directly consults the same grammar sources used by Kirchner and Lavoie in their studies, implementing the information with further language descriptions when needed. What kind of behaviour is observed? Carefully collecting numerous inventories of consonants, this collection is likely to become an important resource for future linguistics research. Which role has it played in phonology since and even before the 19th century? Also, no prior knowledge other than about general phonological categories should be required when reading through Part 1. In the latter case, for instance, it has been recently proposed that contrast preservation should be considered as an independent principle of grammar Lubowicz 2003.
Each file is closed by comments on trends in the grammar of the language, especially phonetic neutralizations, and notes on differences between the proposed classification and Kirchner's one. Lavoie assesses three models of weakening - lenition as i an increase in sonority, ii a decrease in effort, and iii a decrease in duration and magnitude of gesture - through the phonetic analysis of weakening phenomena in American English and Mexican Spanish and concludes that all three of them are needed in order to account for the wide range of facts recorded. What kind of behaviour is observed? The major shortcoming of this work by Gurevich is the lack of a truly strong contextualization of her own work within the current debates in phonological theory, both on the side of diachronic phonology and that of the nature of contrast maintenance. This seems to back up perceptually-driven models of neutralization Steriade 1999, as referred to by Gurevich, but also Côté 2000 and Kochetov 2001, for instance. I hope the book will be useful in helping the students of linguistics to expand their skills of phonological analysis.
In this respect, Gurevich's systematic investigation is most welcome and represents a solid reference book. I conclude that the predictive and descriptive powers of the dimensions of markedness, when taken individually, are far superior to those of markedness used as a cover term. Part 1 describes the properties of lenition and fortition: what counts as such? The emergence of sound patterns. My findings also call into question the motivation for a Correspondence Theoretic component in the grammar. Crucial links between these two fields of phonological phenomena are discovered, empirically verified and phonologically explained. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. They look at the same empirical record, or at a subset thereof, and try to explain what they see.
I believe that the in-depth analysis of single language cases, clearly beyond the scope of a broad cross-linguistic investigation, could shed some light on the constraining role played by the organization of phonemic contrast on sound change outputs; something that has the effect of preserving contrast, without necessarily being an independent principle of grammar. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing. Through the assessment of the outputs of weakening processes in a large corpus of languages, Gurevich demonstrates that the response to phonetically-based sound changes is systemic. Although scales and hierarchies are widely assumed to play a role in the modelling of linguistic phenomena, their status remains controversial, and it is these controversies that the present volume tackles head-on. These two processes are investigated in Persian language system to find the contexts in which they apply according to the framework of generative phonology. A fine-grained picture is also provided through the distribution of neutralizing and not-neutralizing effects by process type.
It in fact makes a contribution to the debate opened by Blevins 2004 on the role of sound change in shaping phonological patterns and systems. The chapter further introduces and discusses the results of the survey of languages. In particular, the sole datum they present as evidence for the ordering paradox problem in a serialist approach is not a reduplicated form at all, but instead a compound of two verbs. With regard to methodology, acoustic analysis was performed. In their works, both Kirchner and Lavoie aim at a unitary approach at the different processes that have been categorized under the rubric of lenition.
The methodological section clarifies the use of the sources as well as the schema followed in the language analyses. Carefully collecting numerous inventories of consonants, this collection is likely to become an important resource for future linguistics research. Contrast preservation and phonological mappings. Starting from the observation that the standard literature considers only duration as a proxy for overall reduction, the aim of the study is to verify whether duration, F1 and F2 exhibit reduction construed as shortening of duration and centralization of formants, respectively to the same degree. The goal is to provide a broad picture of what lenition is, how it behaves, which factors it is conditioned by and what generalisations it obeys. Thus, while I make no overt attempt to defend a serial approach, the data is shown to pose no ordering paradox for such an account. It is certainly one of the core phenomena that is found in the phonology of natural language: together with assimilations, the other important family of phenomena, Lenition and Fortition constitute the heart of what phonology can do to sound.
Carefully collecting numerous inventories of consonants, this collection is likely to become an important resource for future linguistics research. . Specifically, I question the generative theory-internal notion that markedness is encoded in the grammar. By distinguishing between phonetic and phonological neutralization, and showing that the first does not necessarily result in the second, Naomi Gurevich uncovers previously unexplored and often surprising trends in the relationship between phonetics and phonology. This analysis of Southern Paiute data, along with a handful of other examples in their work, is put forth by McCarthy and Prince as strong evidence in support of Correspondence Theory.
The outcome of the spirantization of alveolar stop depends on the shape of the phonemic inventory in a given language. A case of contrastive palatalization. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing. In other words, a measurement of consonantal strength may be expressed as degree of difference from vowel-like articulation. McCarthy and Prince 1995 argue that a serial analysis of this alternation vis-à-vis reduplication leads to an ordering paradox, but an Optimality Theoretic analysis of the interaction between reduplication and the morphophonemic alternation in the language is able to account for the data. Even though Part 3 chapters are couched in a specific theoretical environment that most of the time supposes prior conceptual knowledge, authors have been asked to assure theoretical interoperability as much as they could.
Gurevich also considers the nature of the neutralizing processes versus the non-neutralizing ones. Author by : Lisa M. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. She refers to the primary sources as faithfully as possible and omits all the pieces of information that appear to be partial or inconsistent. By distinguishing between phonetic and phonological neutralization, and showing that the first does not necessarily result in the second, Naomi Gurevich uncovers previously unexplored and often surprising trends in the relationship between phonetics and phonology.
Consonant cluster phonotactics: A perceptual approach. It is unfortunate that these issues are not discussed, as this discussion would have pinpointed the theoretical relevance of Gurevich's findings; on the other hand, one must acknowledge the breadth and solidity of Gurevich's survey and statistical evaluation, as well as the theoretical relevance of the bare facts she brings to light. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. In the light of the data, high vowels constitute an environment that is more conducive to this sort of reduction than mid or low vowels. As a consequence of being complex, rhotics manifest a strong susceptibility to phonetic change.