Before applying the dust removal tool, the software needs to carry out a number of pre-calculations, shot detection and motion analyses. Finally, the issue of metadata and their importance is addressed. Is this the end of film, and therefore the end of cinema studies? Several answers are possible, depending, for example, if one considers the philological or textual level e. As a consequence, film archives and film museums are struggling with questions about their role. Besides a new general introduction, a new conclusion, and extensive updates to each chapter, a novel theoretical framework and an additional case study have been included.
There are in fact two possibilities here: one is that of preserving the original hardware and software to be able to read older formats; the other is that of emulating the look of older formats by using new software. Film archives and laboratories have built up their work around the analogue film and due to the possibilities of digitization are now confronted with a wide range of opportunities and problems. The term d i g i t a l c i n e m a is quite recent but the technology that supports it has already been around for a couple of decades. This branch of academic work stems from a reaction to the technological deterministic approaches of the 1980s. Data m i g ra t i o n consists of cyclically transferring all data onto a new c a r r i e r typically, once every two to five years. What does this imply for the already ambiguous concept of original in film? In the case of films, metadata cover a wide spectrum of information, from filmographic information e.
Almost a decade after its first publication, this revised edition covers the latest developments in the field. Thus there are no plans in hand for digitally synthesized voices, even though synthespians, virtual actors existing only in computer, are being developed as a commercial proposition. This is typically realized in one or more public screening theaters run by the institution itself; here films from the collection are shown regularly, alongside films from other archives and contemporary distribution titles. In Chapter Three I investigate the different approaches to film archival practice, in particular those of film archives, laboratories and funding entities, in relation to the proposed frameworks and concepts. The main difference is that in a restoration the original editing of the film should be reconstructed by the restorer. Finally, the restored data are written back on film negative, the archival master of the restored version, from which new projection prints can be made.
What will become of film archives is a question that should be answered together by theorists and archivists. This kind of solution to the problem of rapidly ageing technology proves particularly interesting when one wants to preserve a digital format in its original form. From this perspective transition is in itself much more complex and in a way integral to the panorama of the media. Another way to deal with this kind of extensive damage is by interpolating frames, usually the one preceding and the one following the damaged frame. The technologies and practices related to these changes will be discussed in this chapter, focusing on how these are reshaping the practice of filmmaking on the one hand, and of film archiving on the other. Deze overgang heeft niet alleen diepgaande invloed op filmproductie en -distributie, maar ook op de manier van archiveren van film en de theoretische conceptualisering van dit medium. What makes this process faster on a digital editing platform is that the digital editor could, in less than a minute, acquire the same results, with a few clicks on a mouse.
A different kind of digital c o m p o s i t i n g is that of digital effacing. The choice for this process was dictated by the desire to obtain a particular color character that was difficult to realize through traditional photochemical processes. Fossati stelt een nieuwe theorie op voor het archiveren en restaureren van film. Uricchio, 2002: 220 It is the aim of this work to look at these struggles and to take a snapshot of a field in transition at a moment when the future of film is being profoundly reshaped, from production to preservation and exhibition. However, although both film archivists and film scholars are dealing with similar dilemmas, the dialogue between them is limited. The new negative is sturdier as an object and it allows for the creation of a smoother narrative line because special effects are evenly spread along the film and are less conspicuous than before, when c g i -loaded scenes and narrative flow were literally alternating with one another.
This situation could change in the near future. In the last ten years a new process, in particular, has been introduced in the post-production practice that has led to the full digitization of film during post-production, the so-called d i g i t a l i n t e r m e d i a t e process. Deze archieven - digitale filmdatabases en YouTube bijvoorbeeld - maken gebruik van media die participatie van vele gebruikers mogelijk maken en worden zo toegankelijker dan ooit. Stuart, 2007 Indeed, many filmmakers and directors of photography still prefer to work with film. At this crucial moment of changing technologies and concepts there is insufficient dialogue between film archives and academia. Requirements for mastering and projection are further described with respect to consistency of image quality. Deze archieven - digitale filmdatabases en YouTube bijvoorbeeld - maken gebruik van media die participatie van vele gebruikers mogelijk maken en worden zo toegankelijker dan ooit.
Dit biedt mogelijkheden voor een hernieuwde dialoog tussen archivarissen en wetenschappers. Based on theories about digitisation, she formed several theoretical frameworks that could serve as a new basis for the practice of film archiving. Digital Cinema 54 digital cinema, also known as D-Cinema, is the general term used in professional literature to indicate the practices of distribution and exhibition of films via digital means. But one may consider isomorphism in a different way and relate it to the observer. For instance, director of photography Ellen Kuras, who has worked both on film and on digital with directors Spike Lee and Michel Gondry, says that: 51 Personally, I still prefer to shoot with film negative.
The restorer has to guess how stable the film might have been originally. Elimination of scratches during scanning reduces significantly the time needed for digital restoration and the risk of mistakes by the software e. Deze archieven - digitale filmdatabases en YouTube bijvoorbeeld - maken gebruik van media die participatie van vele gebruikers mogelijk maken en worden zo toegankelijker dan ooit. What are the new functions of the archive enabled by the digital? Also, these are two critical aspects in the debate on the digitization of archival films within the field, and are often sources of disagreement. Experience with such equipment shows that a pixel pitch of 6µm about 160 pixels per mm is considered sufficient to reproduce current film stocks. Digitisation is also giving rise to problems in a completely different area. Fossati stelt een nieuwe theorie op voor het archiveren en restaureren van film.
Exhibitors could rapidly shift to digital projection if and when distribution should become mainly digital. A recent study carried out by the Science and Technology Council of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences shows that the cost of long-term storage of d i g i t a l c i n e m a data is today between five and eleven times higher, depending on the image re s o l u t i o n , than the cost of storing the same information on film A. Indeed, although digital restoration allows more intervention than any photochemical process, the aim remains to restore the original look of the film. It should be noted that, as is quite evident from the steps mentioned above, the digital does not bring with it a reduction in the number of steps needed for restoration. Also chemical damage usually causes loss of information in the image. In this respect, a distinction on the basis of theatrical exhibition of films can be easily disputed.
One may wonder why non-profit and publicly funded archives still tend to protect their content, even when it could be offered freely to users in a digitized form. From this perspective, this work addresses the question of whether the ongoing transition in film technology and practice is introducing a fundamental change in the nature of film, and specifically focuses on how it could affect the present and the future role of film archives. In the last decade a few interesting research projects have looked into the possibility of solving the material problem by moving towards a truly medialess archive. Fossati stelt een nieuwe theorie op voor het archiveren en restaureren van film. This practice has the advantage that a lower b i t d e p t h is needed and consequently the resulting files will be smaller.